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intramuscular venous malformation

Friday 26 October 2007

Intramuscular venous malformations are often mistaken for tumors because of a similar presentation and improper nomenclature. (12447041)

The female-to-male ratio is 2:1. Two-thirds of skeletal muscle venous malformations are noted at birth; the remainder manifested in childhood and adolescence. (12447041)

Venous malformations occurrs in every muscle group, most often in the head and neck and extremities. Pain and swelling were the usual presenting complaints. Skeletal problems, such as fracture, deformation, or growth abnormalities, are rare. Hormonal exacerbation and intralesional bleeding are infrequent. (12447041)

Gross examination

- multicolored tissue with dilated vascular channels, frequently containing phleboliths.

Light microscopy

- aggregates of primarily medium-sized, thin-walled vascular channels with flat endothelium and variable smooth muscle, most closely resembling dysplastic veins.


- predominantly of small vessels with capillary structure
- proliferative activity
- large feeding and draining vessels, similar to a lesion called intramuscular capillary hemangioma


- GLUT1- (negative for glucose transporter-1)

See also

- vascular dysplasias

  • venous malformations


- Hein KD, Mulliken JB, Kozakewich HP, Upton J, Burrows PE. Venous malformations of skeletal muscle. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002 Dec;110(7):1625-35. PMID: 12447041