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type I interferons immunodeficiencies

Tuesday 17 July 2007

Type I interferons (IFN-alpha/beta and related molecules) are essential for protective immunity to experimental infection by numerous viruses in the mouse model.

Human primary immunodeficiencies affecting either the production of (UNC-93B deficiency) or the response to (STAT1 and TYK2 deficiencies) these IFNs have been reported. Affected patients are highly susceptible to certain viruses.

Patients with STAT1 or TYK2 deficiency are susceptible to multiple viruses, including herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), whereas UNC-93B-deficient patients present isolated HSV-1 encephalitis.

Impaired type II IFN (IFN-gamma)-mediated immunity plays no more than a minor role in the pathogenesis of viral diseases in these patients, but the contribution of impaired type III IFN (IFN-lambda)-mediated immunity remains to be determined.

These novel inherited disorders strongly suggest that type I IFN-mediated immunity is essential for protection against natural infections caused by several viruses in humans.

References

- Jouanguy E, Zhang SY, Chapgier A, Sancho-Shimizu V, Puel A, Picard C, Boisson-Dupuis S, Abel L, Casanova JL. Human primary immunodeficiencies of type I interferons. Biochimie. 2007 June - July;89(6-7):878-883. PMID: 17561326