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Tuesday 23 September 2003

An increasing cause of end-stage renal disease is the pathological lesion focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). FSGS is characterized by proteinuria and frequently nephrotic syndrome with ensuing renal failure. The etiology remains unknown in the majority of individuals.

The idiopathic form of FSGS is most common; however, secondary forms of FSGS do exist.

There is a form of FSGS that is fulminant that frequently recurs after renal transplantation with an estimated frequency of approximately 30%, suggesting that the pathogenesis is not solely a result of intrinsic kidney disease.

Recently, hereditary forms of the disease were recognized as well as those associated with other congenital syndromes. Known genetic causes of the hereditary form of this disease have been suggested to account for upwards of 18% of cases.


Localized anywhere, defined by obliteration of capillary lumen and increased matrix, extensive foot process effacement by EM.

Early lesions

- small peripheral foci of segmental glomerulosclerosis
- well-defined peripheral segmental sclerosis
- glomerular intracapillary foam cells
- prominence of overlying visceral epithelial cells.
- surrounding mild interstitial fibrosis
- mild enlargment of sclerosed glomeruli

Advanced lesions

- diffuse glomerulosclerosis
- moderate to severe renal interstitial fibrosis
- renal tubular atrophy
- increased mesangial matrix
- obliteration of glomerular capillaries


- idiopathic FSGS
- WT1-associated FSGS

- TRPC6-associated FSGS

  • germline mutations in TRPC6 cause focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

- OXPHOS system anomalies (mitochondrial cytopathy) (16328667)

Susceptibility loci

- 9q31-q32 (12840782)

See also

- glomerulosclerosis
- hereditary FSGS
- podocyte slit diaphragm


- D’Agati VD. Podocyte injury in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: Lessons from animal models (a play in five acts). Kidney Int. 2008 Feb;73(4):399-406. PMID: 17989648

- Daskalakis N, Winn MP. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Nov;63(21):2506-11. PMID: 16952054

- Kriz W. TRPC6 - a new podocyte gene involved in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Trends Mol Med. 2005 Dec;11(12):527-30. PMID: 16290061