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Saturday 19 November 2005

Adj. synovial. Normal synovium.; stratum synoviale ; synovium; synovial membrane


Definition: The synovial membrane is a specialized connective tissue that lines the inner surface of capsules of synovial joints and tendon sheath.


- synovial cells / synoviocytes
- connective tissue


- articular synovium
- synovial bursa
- tendon sheath


The synovial membrane makes direct contact with the synovial fluid lubricant, which it is primarily responsible for maintaining.

In contact with the synovial fluid at the tissue surface are many rounded macrophage-like synovial cells (type A) and fibroblast-like (type B) synovial cells.

Type A cells maintains the synovial fluid by removing wear-and-tear debris and type B cells produces hyaluronan among other extracellular components in the synovial fluid.


- Case 258 : Normal synovium


The synovial membrane is variable but often has two layers :

- The inner layer (in contact with synovial fluid), or intima, consists of a sheet of cells thinner than a piece of paper, the synovial cells.

- The outer layer, or subintima, can be of almost any type of connective tissue – fibrous (dense collagenous type ), adipose tissue (fatty; e.g. in intra-articular fat pads ) or areolar tissue (loose collagenous type ).


- synovial pathology


- synovial proliferative disorders

- intrasynovial cartilaginous lesions

- crystal deposition diseases
- response of synovial tissues to implanted foreign materials used in large and small joint arthroplasty

See also

- joints

  • synovial fluid

- synovitis

Open References

- Pathology of the Synovium