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Saturday 19 November 2005

Adj. synovial. Normal synovium. synovial membrane; stratum synoviale


Definition: The synovial membrane is a specialized connective tissue that lines the inner surface of capsules of synovial joints and tendon sheath.[

It makes direct contact with the synovial fluid lubricant, which it is primarily responsible for maintaining.

In contact with the synovial fluid at the tissue surface are many rounded macrophage-like synovial cells (type A) and fibroblast-like (type B) synovial cells.

Type A cells maintains the synovial fluid by removing wear-and-tear debris and type B cells produces hyaluronan among other extracellular components in the synovial fluid.


- Case 258 : Normal synovium


The synovial membrane is variable but often has two layers :

- The inner layer (in contact with synovial fluid), or intima, consists of a sheet of cells thinner than a piece of paper.

- The outer layer, or subintima, can be of almost any type of connective tissue – fibrous (dense collagenous type), adipose (fatty; e.g. in intra-articular fat pads) or areolar (loose collagenous type).


- synovial pathology

See also

- joints

  • synovial fluid