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antrum

Friday 11 November 2005

pyloric antrum, gastric antrum

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Definition: The gastric antrum (Synonyms: pyloric antrum) is the distal ¼ to ⅓ of the stomach, extending distally from the corpus to the pyloric channel and duodenum distally. The antrum is lined by the antral mucosa.

Pyloric antrum (antrum, lesser cul-de-sac) is the initial portion of the pyloric part of the stomach. It is near the bottom of the stomach, proximal to the pyloric sphincter, which separates the stomach and the duodenum.

It may temporarily become partially or completely shut off from the remainder of the stomach during digestion by peristaltic contraction of the prepyloric sphincter; it is demarcated, sometimes, from the second part of the pyloric part of the stomach (pyloric canal) by a slight groove.

The pyloric antrum is the location of several important endocrine cells including gastrin-producing G Cells (stimulate acid production) and the luminal-pH-sensitive population of somatostatin-producing D cells (responsible for shutting off acid secretion. There is a second hormone-sensitive population near the fundus.)

Components

- antral mucosa

Pathology

- antritis
- antral tumors

See also

- pylorus
- transitional zone