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protease

Saturday 19 July 2003

proteases

Types

Proteases are currently[update] classified into six broad groups:

- serine proteases
- cysteine proteases
- aspartate proteases
- threonine proteases
- metalloproteases
- glutamic acid proteases

By optimal pH

Alternatively, proteases may be classified by the optimal pH in which they are active:
- acid proteases
- basic proteases (or alkaline proteases)
- neutral proteases

  • involved in type 1 hypersensitivity
  • released by mast cells, it causes activation of complement and kinins.
  • This group includes the calpains.

Pathology of proteases

- Pathology of serine proteases

  • SPINK5 deficiency (Netherton disease)

- Pathology of cysteine proteases

  • Pathology of calpains

- Pathology of aspartic proteases

  • presenilins

Proteases in cancer

Proteases have long been associated with cancer progression because of their ability to degrade extracellular matrices, which facilitates invasion and metastasis.

- extracellular proteolytic system

  • hemophilia B (serine protease coagulation factor IX)
  • serpinophathies
  • alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (MIM.107400)
  • hereditary angioedema (MIM.106100) (mutations in the serpin C1 inhibitor)

See also

- extracellular proteases
- intramembrane-cleaving proteases
- protease inhibitors

References

- López-Otín C, Matrisian LM. Emerging roles of proteases in tumour suppression. Nat Rev Cancer. 2007 Oct;7(10):800-8. PMID: 17851543

- Mohammed FF, Khokha R. Thinking outside the cell: proteases regulate hepatocyte division. Trends Cell Biol. 2005 Oct;15(10):555-63. PMID: 16150595

- DeClerck YA, Mercurio AM, Stack MS, Chapman HA, Zutter MM, Muschel RJ, Raz A, Matrisian LM, Sloane BF, Noel A, Hendrix MJ, Coussens L, Padarathsingh M. Proteases, extracellular matrix, and cancer: a workshop of the path B study section. Am J Pathol. 2004 Apr;164(4):1131-9. PMID: 15039201

- Molinari F, Meskanaite V, Munnich A, Sonderegger P, Colleaux L. Extracellular proteases and their inhibitors in genetic diseases of the central nervous system. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Oct 15;12 Spec No 2:R195-200. Epub 2003 Aug 12. PMID: 12925575

- Puente XS, Sanchez LM, Overall CM, Lopez-Otin C. Human and mouse proteases: a comparative genomic approach. Nat Rev Genet. 2003 Jul;4(7):544-58. PMID: 12838346

- Rao JS. Molecular mechanisms of glioma invasiveness: the role of proteases. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003 Jul;3(7):489-501. PMID: 12835669

- Molinari F, Meskanaite V, Munnich A, Sonderegger P, Colleaux L. Extracellular proteases and their inhibitors in genetic diseases of the central nervous system.
Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Oct 15;12 Spec No 2:R195-200. PMID: 12925575