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Haplogroup A

Wednesday 28 September 2005

Distribution

- Native Americans
- Chukchi and Siberian Eskimos

Facts

- The sequence-divergence estimates for Haplogroup A, Haplogroup C, and Haplogroup D of Siberian and Native American populations indicate that the earliest inhabitants of Beringia possessed a limited number of founding mtDNA haplotypes and that the first humans expanded into the New World approximately 34,000 years before present (YBP). (#9792876#)

- A 16111C—>T transition appears to delineate an "American" enclave of Haplogroup A mtDNAs in northeastern Siberia, whereas the 16192C—>T transition demarcates a "northern Pacific Rim" cluster within Haplogroup A. (#9792876#)

References

- Nishigaki Y, Yamada Y, Fuku N, Matsuo H, Segawa T, Watanabe S, Kato K, Yokoi K, Yamaguchi S, Nozawa Y, Tanaka M. Mitochondrial haplogroup A is a genetic risk factor for atherothrombotic cerebral infarction in Japanese females. Mitochondrion. 2007 Feb-Apr;7(1-2):72-9. PMID: #17257906#

- Eshleman JA, Malhi RS, Johnson JR, Kaestle FA, Lorenz J, Smith DG. Mitochondrial DNA and prehistoric settlements: native migrations on the western edge of North America. Hum Biol. 2004 Feb;76(1):55-75. PMID: #15222680#

- Malhi RS, Breece KE, Shook BA, Kaestle FA, Chatters JC, Hackenberger S, Smith DG. Patterns of mtDNA diversity in northwestern North America. Hum Biol. 2004 Feb;76(1):33-54. PMID: #15222679#

- Silva WA Jr, Bonatto SL, Holanda AJ, Ribeiro-Dos-Santos AK, Paixao BM, Goldman GH, Abe-Sandes K, Rodriguez-Delfin L, Barbosa M, Paco-Larson ML, Petzl-Erler ML, Valente V, Santos SE, Zago MA. Mitochondrial genome diversity of Native Americans supports a single early entry of founder populations into America. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Jul;71(1):187-92. PMID: #12022039#

- Bonatto SL, Salzano FM. Diversity and age of the four major mtDNA haplogroups, and their implications for the peopling of the New World. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Dec;61(6):1413-23. PMID: #9399887#