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Wednesday 28 September 2005

Haplogroups (Exemples)

- Haplogroup H
- Haplogroup M


- The DdeI(10,394)AluI(10,397)(++) haplotype predated the Indo-European invasion and probably the split between proto-Indians and proto-Orientals. Its frequency cline well reflects the major influence of Indo-Europeans in the north and in the center of India. (8808610)

- The demographic history of India was examined by comparing mtDNA sequences obtained from members of three culturally divergent Indian subpopulations (endogamous caste groups). (7717409)

  • No clear separation into three genetically distinct groups along caste lines.
  • Comparison of pairwise nucleotide difference distributions, however, did indicate a difference in growth patterns between two of the castes.
  • The Brahmin population appears to have undergone either a rapid expansion or steady growth.
  • The low-ranking Mukri caste, however, may have either maintained a roughly constant population size or undergone multiple bottlenecks during that period.
  • Comparison of the Indian sequences to those obtained from other populations, using a tree, revealed that the Indian sequences, along with all other non-African samples, form a starlike cluster.
  • This cluster may represent a major expansion, possibly originating in southern Asia, taking place at some point after modern humans initially left Africa.


- Terreros MC, Rowold D, Luis JR, Khan F, Agrawal S, Herrera RJ. North Indian Muslims: Enclaves of foreign DNA or Hindu converts? Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007 Apr 11; PMID: 17427927

- Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, Mehdi SQ, Edmonds CA, Chow CE, Lin AA, Mitra M, Sil SK, Ramesh A, Usha Rani MV, Thakur CM, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Majumder PP, Underhill PA. Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of central asian pastoralists. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Feb;78(2):202-21. PMID: 16400607

- Kivisild T, Rootsi S, Metspalu M, Mastana S, Kaldma K, Parik J, Metspalu E, Adojaan M, Tolk HV, Stepanov V, Golge M, Usanga E, Papiha SS, Cinnioglu C, King R, Cavalli-Sforza L, Underhill PA, Villems R. The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Feb;72(2):313-32. PMID: 12536373

- Passarino G, Semino O, Bernini LF, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS. Pre-Caucasoid and Caucasoid genetic features of the Indian population, revealed by mtDNA polymorphisms. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Oct;59(4):927-34. PMID: 8808610

- Govindaraju DR. Our tangled heritage: demographic history and the Indian caste system. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Nov;57(5):1243-7. PMID: 7485177

- Mountain JL, Hebert JM, Bhattacharyya S, Underhill PA, Ottolenghi C, Gadgil M, Cavalli-Sforza LL. Demographic history of India and mtDNA-sequence diversity. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Apr;56(4):979-92. PMID: 7717409