Home > E. Pathology by systems > Respiratory system > Lungs > pulmonary emphysema

pulmonary emphysema

Wednesday 22 June 2005

Digital slides

- JRC:6315 : alpha1 anti-trypsin deficiency (pulmonary A1AT deficiency).

Images

- YRC: Panlobular emphysema associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

  • There is diffuse destruction of lung tissue throughout the lobule as opposed to centrolobular emphysema in which the lung destruction is bronchocentric in the center of the lobule.

Types

- centrilobular emphysema (proximal acinar emphysema, centriacinar emphysema)

  • In centrilobular emphysema only the central or proximal portions of the respiratory lobule (respiratory bronchial) is involved.
  • The distal alveoli are spared.
  • It usually involves the upper lobe and is the most common type of emphysema.
  • Associated with smoking and coal dust.

- panacinar emphysema (panlobular emphysema)

  • In panacinar emphysema (panlobular emphysema), there is involvement of the complete respiratory lobule (all alveoli are involved of a respiratory lobule).
  • Typically involves the lower zones and anterior margins of the lung.
  • Associated with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AT deficiency).

- distal acinar emphysema
- irregular emphysema
- localized giant bullous emphysema

Etiology

- alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
- toxic agents and drugs

  • cigarette smoking
  • IV drug abuse
  • ritalin
  • cadmium

- constitutional connective tissue disorders

  • Marfan syndrome
  • Salla disease
  • congenital cutis laxa

See also

- simple airspace enlargement (nonemphysematous airspace enlargement)

  • congenital lobar emphysema

Videos

- Pulmonary emphysema by Washington Deceit

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- Physiopathology of the pulmonary emphysema

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