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Friday 15 April 2005

Estrogens are key regulators of growth, differentiation, and the physiological functions of a wide range of target tissues, including the male and female reproductive tracts, breast, and skeletal, nervous, cardiovascular, digestive and immune systems.

The majority of these biological activities of estrogens are mediated through two genetically distinct receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, which function as hormone-inducible transcription factors.

Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that the recruitment of coregulatory proteins to ERs is required for ER-mediated transcriptional and biological activities.

These "coactivator" complexes enable the ERs to respond appropriately: 1) to hormones or pharmacological ligands, 2) interpret extra- and intra-cellular signals, 3) catalyze the process of chromatin condensation and 4) to communicate with the general transcription apparatus at target gene promoters.

In addition to activating proteins, the existence of corepressors, proteins that function as negative regulators of ER activity in either physiological or pharmacological contexts, provides an additional level of complexity in ER action.

See also

- ER-cofactor interactions
- estrogen-associated pathologies.


- Gruber CJ, Tschugguel W, Schneeberger C, Huber JC. Production and actions of estrogens. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jan 31;346(5):340-52. PMID: 11821512

- Hall JM, McDonnell DP. Coregulators in nuclear estrogen receptor action: from concept to therapeutic targeting. Mol Interv. 2005 Dec;5(6):343-57. PMID: 16394250