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mitochondria

Sunday 13 July 2003

Mitochondrial structure

- inner mitochondrial membrane

Mitochondrial genome

- structure
- maitenance
- replication
- mitochondrial transcription
- mitochondrial traduction
- elongation
- termination
- co-traductional phenomenons

Mitochondrial functions

- energy production/ROS (rective oxygen species)
- programmed cell death (apoptosis)
- calcium homeostasis
- gluconeogenesis
- urea cycle
- lipid synthesis
- fatty acid oxidation

Mitochondria and apoptosis

- Involvement of mitochondria in apotposis is regulated by proteins of the Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphocytic-leukaemia proto-oncogene 2 or BCL2) family. These proteins act by altering the properties of mitochondrial membranes to facilitate the release of apoptogenic proteins like cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo that, once released into the cytosol, are crucial for activating the caspase cascade of cell degradation.

- CL (cardiolipin), an unusual membrane lipid that is predominantly present in mitochondria, is required for the action of major pro-apoptotic proteins like Bid and Bax. Bid may be involved in the metabolic cycle of CL re-modelling.

Mitochondrial dynamics

Mitochondrial organelles constantly fuse and divide, and are actively transported to specific subcellular locations. These dynamic processes are essential for mammalian development, and defects lead to neurodegenerative diseases.

Pathology

- mitochondrial lesions
- mitochondrial diseases

See also

- mitochondrial fusion
- mitochondrial genesis
- mitochondrial death
- mitochondria and cellular death (mitochondria and apoptosis)

References

- Modica-Napolitano JS, Kulawiec M, Singh KK. Mitochondria and human cancer. Curr Mol Med. 2007 Feb;7(1):121-31. PMID: #17311537#

- Boldogh IR, Pon LA. Mitochondria on the move. Trends Cell Biol. 2007 Oct;17(10):502-10. PMID: #17804238#

- Scherz-Shouval R, Elazar Z. ROS, mitochondria and the regulation of autophagy. Trends Cell Biol. 2007 Sep;17(9):422-7. PMID: #17804237#

- Baker MJ, Frazier AE, Gulbis JM, Ryan MT. Mitochondrial protein-import machinery: correlating structure with function. Trends Cell Biol. 2007 Sep;17(9):456-64. PMID: #17825565#

- Pizzo P, Pozzan T. Mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum choreography: structure and signaling dynamics.Trends Cell Biol. 2007 Oct;17(10):511-7. PMID: #17851078#

- Detmer SA, Chan DC. Functions and dysfunctions of mitochondrial dynamics. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Nov;8(11):870-9. PMID: #17928812#

- Meeusen SL, Nunnari J. How mitochondria fuse. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2005 Aug;17(4):389-94. PMID: #15975776#

- Jensen RE. Control of mitochondrial shape. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2005 Aug;17(4):384-8. PMID: #15975781#

- Mattson MP, Kroemer G. Mitochondria in cell death: novel targets for neuroprotection and cardioprotection. Trends Mol Med. 2003 May;9(5):196-205. PMID: #12763524#

- Chacinska A, Pfanner N, Meisinger C. How mitochondria import hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteins. Trends Cell Biol. 2002 Jul;12(7):299-303. PMID: #12185844#

- Ravagnan L, Roumier T, Kroemer G. Mitochondria, the killer organelles and their weapons. J Cell Physiol. 2002 Aug;192(2):131-7. PMID: #12115719#

- Cohen I, Castedo M, Kroemer G. Tantalizing Thanatos: unexpected links in death pathways. Trends Cell Biol. 2002 Jul;12(7):293-5. PMID: #12185842#

- Desagher S, Martinou JC. Mitochondria as the central control point of apoptosis. Trends Cell Biol. 2000 Sep ;10(9):369-77. PMID : #10932094#

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