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TGFB superfamily

Friday 11 July 2003

TGFB proteins (TGFBs) are multifunctional peptides that control proliferation, differentiation, and other functions in many cell types. TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 all function through the same receptor signaling systems.

Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are potent regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis.

They act through binding to and activating serine/threonine kinase receptors on the cell surface and triggering intracellular signaling pathways in which Smad proteins have essential roles.

Members

- TGFB1 coding for TGF-beta1 (19q13.1) (MIM.190180)
- TGFB2 coding for TGFTGF-beta2 (MIM.190220)
- TGFB3 coding for TGFTGF-beta3 (MIM.190230)
- TRNs (TGF-beta-related neurotrophins): NRTN, GDNF
- activins
- bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)

Pathology (TGF-beta-associated disorders)

- vascular diseases
- gastrointestinal diseases
- gastrointestinal neoplasia
- inherited cancer
- developmental diseases

References

- Keski-Oja J, Koli K, von Melchner H. TGF-beta activation by traction? Trends Cell Biol. 2004 Dec;14(12):657-9. PMID: 15564041

- Bommireddy R, Doetschman T. TGF-beta, T-cell tolerance and anti-CD3 therapy. Trends Mol Med. 2004 Jan;10(1):3-9.PMID: 14720578

- Siegel PM, Massague J. Cytostatic and apoptotic actions of TGF-beta in homeostasis and cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003 Nov;3(11):807-21. PMID: 14557817

- Waite KA, Eng C. From developmental disorder to heritable cancer: it’s all in the BMP/TGF-beta family. Nat Rev Genet. 2003 Oct;4(10):763-73. PMID: 14526373

- Packard M, Mathew D, Budnik V. Wnts and TGF beta in synaptogenesis: old friends signalling at new places. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003 Feb;4(2):113-20. PMID: 12563282

- Kulkarni AB, Thyagarajan T, Letterio JJ. Function of cytokines within the TGF-beta superfamily as determined from transgenic and gene knockout studies in mice. Curr Mol Med. 2002 May;2(3):303-27. PMID: 12041733

- Akhurst RJ, Derynck R. TGF-beta signaling in cancer—a double-edged sword. Trends Cell Biol. 2001 Nov;11(11):S44-51. PMID: 11684442

- Massague J. How cells read TGF-beta signals. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Dec;1(3):169-78. PMID: 11252892

- Border WA, Noble NA. Transforming growth factor beta in tissue fibrosis. N Engl J Med. 1994 Nov 10;331(19):1286-92. PMID: 7935686

- Border WA, Ruoslahti E. Transforming growth factor-beta in disease: the dark side of tissue repair. J Clin Invest. 1992 Jul;90(1):1-7. PMID: 1634602