Home > D. General pathology > Genetic and developmental anomalies > morphogenesis


Thursday 10 July 2003

Definition: The coming into being of form. Morphogenesis involves coordinated proliferation, differentiation and spatial distribution of cells.


- branching morphogenesis
- tubular morphogenesis

  • renal tubular morphogenesis


- dysmorphogenesis

See also

- organogenesis
- molecular morphogenesis

Open references

- Computational models for mechanics of morphogenesis.
Wyczalkowski MA, Chen Z, Filas BA, Varner VD, Taber LA.
Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2012 Jun;96(2):132-52.
doi : 10.1002/bdrc.21013 Review.
PMID: 22692887 (free)


- Lecuit T, Lenne PF. Cell surface mechanics and the control of cell shape, tissue patterns and morphogenesis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Aug;8(8):633-44. PMID: 17643125

- Lecaudey V, Gilmour D. Organizing moving groups during morphogenesis. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2006 Feb;18(1):102-7. PMID: 16352429

- Hardin J, Walston T. Models of morphogenesis: the mechanisms and mechanics of cell rearrangement. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004 Aug;14(4):399-406. PMID: 15261656

- Martinez-Frias ML, Frias JL, Opitz JM. Errors of morphogenesis and developmental field theory. Am J Med Genet. 1998 Apr 1;76(4):291-6. PMID: 9545092