HGNC:3236 MIM.131550 7p12.3-p12.1
Saturday 6 November 2004
Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) appears as a key element in colorectal carcinogenesis. It displays high levels of expression.
EGFR activation induces cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell mobility and inhibition of apoptosis. EGFR inhibitors such as monoclonal antibodies or small molecules tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed.
For EGFR, the diversity of the activation means (amplification, mutation, enhanced transcription, ligands...) leads to technical caveats.
Pathologists are involved in the selection of patients for a monoclonal antibody based targeted treatment, Erbitux (cetuximab), and numerous standardization efforts are provided. No consensus has been reached, to date, for a scoring system for immunohistochemistry.
No correlation has been found so far between EGFR level of expression and response to cetuximab. (#16387663#)
EGFR gene amplification by amp(7)(p12) and EGFR overexpression in various cancers
- glioblastoma (34%)
- anaplastic oligodendroglioma
- non-small cell lung cancer predisposition (#16258541#)
- non-small cell lung cancers
- Somatic activating mutations in EGFR identify a subset of non-small cell lung cancer that respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
- acquisition of drug resistance (somatic EGFR-T790M) (#16258541#)
A test for the EGFR mutation in cancer patients has been developed by Genzyme. EGFR mutations have been shown to correlate with clinical response to certain drugs, including Tarceva® (erlotinib) and IRESSA® (gefitinib), used in treating this deadly form of cancer.
- gefitinib inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of EGFR, the receptor for EGF (epidermal growth factor)
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