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neuroendocrine tumors

Monday 28 June 2004


Definition: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) previously called "carcinoid tumors" are neoplasms of enterochromaffin/neuroendocrine cell origin which display neurosecretory capacity that may result in the carcinoid syndrome.

The annual incidence of patients with NET is 8.4 per 100000; yet many NET remain asymptomatic and clinically undetected. A majority of NET follows a benign course; however, some will display malignant characteristics.

NET most commonly occur in the gastrointestinal tract (67%) and bronchopulmonary system (25%). Gastrointestinal NET occur within the stomach, small intestine, liver, and rectum.


- Old WHO 2010 compared to the new WHO 2017 grading of neuroendocrine tumours (NETS) from new WHO blue book.

Digital cases

- JRC:481 : High-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (possibly anaplastic medullary carcinoma)
- JRC:1591 : Spindle cell carcinoid tumor of the lung


- thyroid medullary carcinoma
- neuroendocrine carcinoma
- paraganglioma
- parathyroid adenoma
- carcinoid tumor


- pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors
- digestive neuroendocrine tumors
- thyroid neuroendocrine tumors
- pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors


- multifocal neuroendocrine tumors


- Grading with Ki-67 (22895268)


- 11q LOH (21%) (15920555)
- 16q (13%) (15920555)
- 18 (30%) (15920555)
- BRAF locus

See also

- neuroendocrine organs
- neuroendocrine markers


- Grading of Neuroendocrine Tumors With Ki-67 Requires High-quality Assessment Practices. Remes SM, Tuominen VJ, Helin H, Isola J, Arola J. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012 Sep;36(9):1359-63. PMID: 22895268

- Chung DC. Cyclin D1 in human neuroendocrine tumorigenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Apr;1014:209-17. PMID: 15153436