Home > E. Pathology by systems > Digestive system > Liver > neonatal hepatitis

neonatal hepatitis

Thursday 19 June 2003

Digital cases

- Case 109 : Etiology unknown

Morphological synopsis

- hepatocyte necrosis
- foci of extramedullary erythropoiesis
- cytoplasmic cholestasis
- canalicular cholestasis
- giant cell transformation of hepatocytes (neonatal giant cell hepatitis)
- portal lymphocytary infiltrates
- lobular lymphocytary infiltrates

Etiologies

1. neonatal infectious hepatitis

- bacterial neonatal infections

  • neonatal systemic sepsis (Escherichia coli, Listeria) (bacterial sepsis-associated hepatitis)
  • Escherichia coli
  • Streptococcus B
  • listeriosis (Listeria)
  • Staphylococcus
  • syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
  • listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)
  • tubeculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

- viral neonatal hepatitis

  • hepatitis B virus (HBV hepatitis)
  • rubella virus
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV hepatitis)
  • varicella (HSV hepatitis)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  • Adenovirus
  • Parvovirus B19 (parvoviral hepatitis)
  • HIV
  • reovirus
  • paramyxovirus
  • Enterovirus (enteroviral hepatitis)
    • Coxsackie
    • ECHOvirus

- parasitic neonatal infections (protozoan hepatitis)

2. genetic hepatic metabolic diseases

- alpha1-anti-trypsine deficiency (PI deficiency alpha1-AT deficiency) (MIM.107400)
- Wilson disease
- galactosemia
- fructosemia
- tyrosinemia
- mitochondrial cytopathy (oxydative phosphorylation anomalies)
- peroxisomopathies (peroxysomal diseases)

  • Zellweger syndrome
  • Refsum disease
  • dihydroxycholestanoic acidemia
  • trihydroxycholestanoic acidemia

- bile acid synthesis diseases

  • oxysterol 7alpha hydroxylase deficiency
  • 3beta hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase deficiency
  • oxosteroid 5beta reductase deficiency

- mitochondrial mtDNA depletion (mitochondriopathies)
- Gaucher disease
- Nieman-Pick disease type C (7618476)
- indian childhood cirrhosis
- ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency

3. neonatal cholestasis

- biliary tract anomalies

- intrahepatic biliary ducts paucity
- bile acid synthesis diseases

  • oxysterol 7alpha hydroxylase deficiency
  • 3beta hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase deficiency
  • oxosteroid 5beta reductase deficiency

- progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) or familial intrahepatic cholestasis (FIHC)

- cystic fibrosis

4. Miscellaneous

- idiopathic neonatal hepatitis
- neonatal immunohemolytic disorders
- neonatal hepatitis and neonatal steatosis
- neonatal hemochromatosis

See also

- childhood chronic hepatitis
- neonatal hepatic deficiency