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TGFB1

Monday 17 May 2004

Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) is an important pleiotropic, immunoregulatory cytokine, uses distinct signaling mechanisms in lymphocytes to affect T-cell homeostasis, regulatory T (T(reg))-cell and effector-cell function and tumorigenesis.

Defects in TGFbeta1 expression or its signaling in T cells correlate with the onset of several autoimmune diseases.

TGFbeta1 prevents abnormal T-cell activation through the modulation of Ca(2+)-calcineurin signaling in a Caenorhabditis elegans Sma and Drosophila Mad proteins (SMAD)3 and SMAD4-independent manner; however, in T(reg) cells, its effects are mediated, at least in part, through SMAD signaling.

TGFbeta1 also acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and induces interleukin (IL)-17-producing pathogenic T-helper cells (T(h) IL-17 cells) synergistically during an inflammatory response in which IL-6 is produced.

Functions

- Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) has a major role in the regulation of folliculogenesis and differentiation in thyroid cells. (12010642)

Pathology

- germline mutations in Camurati-Engelmann disease

References

- Bommireddy R, Doetschman T. TGFbeta1 and T(reg) cells: alliance for tolerance. Trends Mol Med. 2007 Nov;13(11):492-501. PMID: 17977791

- Vodovotz Y, Zamora R, Lieber MJ, Luckhart S. Cross-talk between nitric oxide and transforming growth factor-beta1 in malaria. Curr Mol Med. 2004 Nov;4(7):787-97. PMID: 15579025