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Monday 19 April 2004

Definition: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing.

Peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) belongs to the family of nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), which directly regulate transcription of target genes. The regulatory role of this receptor on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitization is well established.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are lipid-activated transcription factors that regulate lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose homeostasis and inflammation.

The PPAR family consists of three proteins, alpha, beta/delta and gamma. Recent data suggest that PPAR alpha and gamma activation decreases atherosclerosis progression not only by correcting metabolic disorders, but also through direct effects on the vascular wall.

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play central roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis, cellular differentiation, and the immune/inflammatory response.

PPARs modulate the recruitment of leukocytes to endothelial cells, control the inflammatory response and lipid homeostasis of monocytes/macrophages and regulate inflammatory cytokine production by smooth muscle cells.

In addition to ligand binding, phosphorylation can regulate PPARs; the biological effects of phosphorylation depend on the stimulus, the kinase, the PPAR isotype, the residue modified, the cell type and the promoter investigated.


The overexpression of PPARs in many human cancers has been identified.

PPARgamma activation by specific agonists leads to growth inhibition, apoptosis and differentiation of tumor cells.

PPARgamma possess evident tumor promoting properties but the receptor independent effects of its ligands compound the understanding of its biology in cancers.




- PAX8/PPARG fusion gene in follicular thyroid tumors

See also

- PPAR signaling pathway


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