Home > E. Pathology by systems > Cardiovascular system > Heart > cardiac malformations

cardiac malformations

Tuesday 13 April 2004

Types (Exemples)

- septal malformations (atrioventricular septal defects)

  • malformations of the atrial septum
    • atrial septal defect
    • single atrium
    • premature closure of the foramen ovale
  • malformations of the atrioventricular septum
    • partial atrioventricular septal defect
    • complete atrioventricular septal defect (complete AV canal)

- malformations of the conus and truncus (conotruncal malformations)

  • transposition of great vessels
    • complete transposition (D-transposition)
    • corrected transposition (L-transposition)
  • double outlet ventricles
    • double outlet right ventricle
    • double outlet left ventricle
  • persistent truncus arteriosus
  • aortopulmonary window (aortopulmonary septal defect)

- malformations of the ventricular inflow tracts

  • tricupsid valve malformations
  • mitral valve malformations
    • congenital mitral stenosis and insufficiency
      • mitral valve dysplasia
      • mitral valve hypoplasia
      • supramitral ring
      • parachute deformity
      • double orifice mitral valve
    • mitral atresia
  • univentricular atrioventricular connection

- malformations of the ventricular outflow tracts

  • pulmonary outflow tract and valve malformations
    • tetralogy of Fallot
  • aortic outflow tract and valve malformations
  • hypoplastic left-heart syndrome

- malformations of the aortic arch system

- cardiac situs anomaly

  • dextrocardia
  • right cardiac isomerism
  • left cardiac isomerism

References

- Huhta JC, Hernandez-Robles JA. Homocysteine, folate, and congenital heart defects. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2005 Mar-Apr;24(2):71-9. PMID: 16243751

- Gelb BD. Genetic basis of congenital heart disease. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2004 Mar;19(2):110-5. PMID: 15075735

- Hatcher CJ, Diman NY, McDermott DA, Basson CT. Transcription factor cascades in congenital heart malformation. Trends Mol Med. 2003 Dec;9(12):512-5. PMID: 14659463

- Devine WA, Debich DE, Anderson RH. Dissection of congenitally malformed hearts, with comments on the value of sequential segmental analysis. Pediatr Pathol. 1991 Mar-Apr;11(2):235-59. PMID: 2052507

Portfolio

  • Tetralogy of Fallot (fetus, 16 weeks)