MIM.604489 5p13.2-q11.1 HGNC:451
Thursday 18 December 2003
Alpha-methyl CoA racemase (AMACR), a new molecular marker for prostate cancer.
high expression in
- prostatic adenocarcinoma (prostae cancer)
- colorectal adenocarcinomas (62%) (15958853)
- non-ampullary (low frequency) (4%) (15958853)
- ampullary small intestinal adenocarcinoma (low frequency) (6%) (15958853)
- high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) (15297968)
- prostatic nephrogenic adenoma
- papillary renal cell carcinoma (14707866)
Alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) is a novel immunomarker for prostatic adenocarcinoma that has recently been shown to be expressed in a number of malignancies including colorectal adenocarcinoma.
AMACR is a marker of papillary renal cell carcinoma (14707866)
- Some microarray analyses of renal cell carcinomas showed a significant increase of AMACR mRNA levels in papillary renal cell carcinomas, but not in other subtypes.
- AMACR as a marker for papillary renal cell carcinoma, which could be valuable in subclassification of renal cell carcinomas and in the differential diagnosis of a metastatic papillary carcinoma.
- It has been reported to be one of the most highly expressed genes in papillary renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Because high expression of AMACR is found in papillary RCCs (type 1 and 2) and in mucinous, tubular, and spindle cell carcinomas of the kidney, immunostaining for AMACR should be used in conjunction with other markers when histological typing of a renal tumor is difficult. (16733210)
Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA racemase is a tumor marker over-expressed in several human cancers and their precursor lesions. (12131161)
P504S/alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase is a useful marker for diagnosis of small foci of prostatic carcinoma on needle biopsy. (12218573)
The p63/P504S monoclonal antibody cocktail localizes P504S in the cytoplasm of prostate carcinoma cells and high-grade PIN and demonstrates the nuclei of prostatic basal cells, providing information on both the status of P504S and the presence or absence of basal cells with a single immunostain. This cocktail can be of great utility in the examination of diagnostically challenging prostate specimens.
α-Methyl-CoA racemase (AMACR)
AMACR mRNA was identified as being overexpressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma by cDNA library subtraction utilizing high throughput RNA microarray analysis.
This mRNA was found to encode a racemase protein, for which polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been produced which are active in formalin-fixed, paraffin- embedded tissue.
Immunohistochemical studies on biopsy material with an antibody directed against AMACR (P504S) demonstrate that over 80% of prostatic adenocarcinomas are labeled.
Certain subtypes of prostate cancer, such as foamy gland carcinoma, atrophic carcinoma, pseudohyperplastic, and treated carcinoma show lower AMACR expression.
AMACR may be used as a confirmatory stain for prostatic adenocarcinoma, in conjunction with H&E morphology and a basal cell specific marker.
AMACR is expressed in other non-prostatic neoplasms including urothelial and colon cancer.
Alpha-methyl CoA racemase expression in renal cell carcinomas. Molinié V, Balaton A, Rotman S, Mansouri D, De Pinieux I, Homsi T, Guillou L. Hum Pathol. 2006 Jun;37(6):698-703. PMID: 16733210
Use of p63/P504S monoclonal antibody cocktail in immunohistochemical staining of prostate tissue. Tacha DE, Miller RT. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2004 Mar;12(1):75-8. PMID: 15163024
Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a variably sensitive immunohistochemical marker for the diagnosis of small prostate cancer foci on needle biopsy. Magi-Galluzzi C, Luo J, Isaacs WB, Hicks JL, de Marzo AM, Epstein JI. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003 Aug;27(8):1128-33. PMID: 12883245
Expression and diagnostic utility of alpha-methylacyl-CoA-racemase (P504S) in foamy gland and pseudohyperplastic prostate cancer. Zhou M, Jiang Z, Epstein JI. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003 Jun;27(6):772-8. PMID: 12766580
P504S immunohistochemical detection in 405 prostatic specimens including 376 18-gauge needle biopsies.
Beach R, Gown AM, De Peralta-Venturina MN, Folpe AL, Yaziji H, Salles PG, Grignon DJ, Fanger GR, Amin MB.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2002 Dec;26(12):1588-96.PMID: 12459625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
P504S/alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a useful marker for diagnosis of small foci of prostatic carcinoma on needle biopsy. Jiang Z, Wu CL, Woda BA, Dresser K, Xu J, Fanger GR, Yang XJ. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002 Sep;26(9):1169-74. PMID: 12218573
Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA racemase: a novel tumor marker over-expressed in several human cancers and their precursor lesions. Zhou M, Chinnaiyan AM, Kleer CG, Lucas PC, Rubin MA. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002 Jul;26(7):926-31. PMID: 12131161