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exosome in cancer

Sunday 5 January 2014

Exosomes are small membrane vesicles released by most cell types including tumor cells. The intercellular exchange of proteins and genetic material via exosomes is a potentially effective approach for cell-to-cell communication and it may perform multiple functions aiding to tumor survival and metastasis.

Exosome in cancer

- 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)

  • The exosome has been shown to be inhibited by the antimetabolite drug fluorouracil, which is a drug used in chemotherapy treatment of cancer. It is one of the most successful drugs for treating solid tumors.
  • In yeast cells treated with fluorouracil, defects were seen in the processing of ribosomal RNA identical to those seen when the activity of the exosome was blocked by molecular biological strategies.
  • Lack of correct ribosomal RNA processing is lethal to cells, explaining the antimetabolic effect of the drug.

- brain metastasis

  • MicroRNA and protein profiling of brain metastasis competent cell-derived exosomes. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073790 .PMID: #24066071#

Oncology biomarkers

It has been developed working procedures to evaluate exosomal RNA signature as novel biomarkers for cancer prognosis, prediction and patient stratification.

In particular, it has refreshed current practice and demonstrated a new approach for studying RNA signature in patient blood samples.

Open References

- MicroRNA and protein profiling of brain metastasis competent cell-derived exosomes. Camacho L, Guerrero P, Marchetti D. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 16;8(9):e73790. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073790 . PMID: #24066071# (Free)

- Proteomic profiling of exosomes leads to the identification of novel biomarkers for prostate cancer. Duijvesz D, Burnum-Johnson KE, Gritsenko MA, Hoogland AM, Vredenbregt-van den Berg MS, Willemsen R, Luider T, Paša-Tolić L, Jenster G. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 31;8(12):e82589. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082589 . PMID: #24391718# [Free]

References

- The roles of extracellular vesicles in cancer biology: towards the development of novel cancer biomarkers. Katsuda T, Kosaka N, Ochiya T. Proteomics. 2013 Dec 12. doi:10.1002/pmic.201300389 . PMID: #24339442#

- Prostate Cancer Biomarker Profiles in Urinary Sediments and Exosomes. Dijkstra S, Birker IL, Smit FP, Leyten GH, de Reijke TM, van Oort IM, Mulders PF, Jannink SA, Schalken JA. J Urol. 2013 Nov 7. pii: S0022-5347(13)05884-9. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2013.11.001 . PMID: #24211598#

- Clinical use of novel urine and blood based prostate cancer biomarkers: A review. Dijkstra S, Mulders PF, Schalken JA. Clin Biochem. 2013 Oct 29. pii: S0009-9120(13)00497-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2013.10.023. PMID: #24177197#