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Biomarkers in prostate cancers

Tuesday 31 July 2012

Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer in men but if caught and treated early has a 90% cure rate, thus early detection is imperative.

- CEA

  • CEA is a non-specific cancer antigen produced in response to malignant cells.
  • In the prostate Tumour PSA Array, CEA is measured in addition to total and free PSA.
  • Therefore testing for CEA simultaneously with PSA provides a more accurate diagnosis of prostate cancer.

- AFP

  • AFP is a protein produced by the developing foetus and also by certain tumours.
  • AFP levels in healthy adults are low thus elevated levels may indicate the presence of a tumour such as testicular or ovarian tumours.

- hCG

  • hCG is a hormone produced in pregnancy and is not normally elevated in healthy adults.
  • hCG, secreted by some cancers, is a very sensitive test for tumour presence.
  • Simultaneous measurement of all three markers can be used to monitor the effects of treatment and recurrence of disease.

Types

- Tumour PSA Array Analytes (Randox)

  • Free Prostate Specific Antigen (fPSA)
  • Total Prostate Specific Antigen (tPSA)
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)

- Tumour Array 3 (Monitoring) Analytes (Randox - PDF)

  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
  • Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP)
  • Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG)

The Tumour Array 3 contains CEA in addition to AFP and hCG.

Methylation profiling

- GSTP1
- APC
- RASSF1

References

- A tissue biopsy-based epigenetic multiplex PCR assay for prostate cancer detection. Van Neste L, Bigley J, Toll A, Otto G, Clark J, Delr√©e P, Van Criekinge W, Epstein JI. BMC Urol. 2012 Jun 6;12(1):16. PMID: 22672250