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phosphatidic acid

Wednesday 4 January 2012

Definition: Phosphatidic acids (PAs) are the acid forms of phosphatidates, a part of common phospholipids, major constituents of cell membranes.

Phosphatidic acids are the simplest diacyl-glycerophospholipids.

Structure

Phosphatidic acid consists of a glycerol backbone, with, in general, a saturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-1, an unsaturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-2, and a phosphate group bonded to carbon-3.

Formation and degradation

Besides de novo synthesis, PA can be formed in three ways:
- By phospholipase D (PLD), via the hydrolysis of the P-O bond of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to produce PA and choline.
- By the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG kinase (DAGK)
- By the acylation of lysophosphatidic acid by lysoPA-acyltransferase (LPAAT); this is the most common pathway.

PA is degraded by conversion into DAG by lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPPs) or into lyso-PA by phospholipase A (PLA).

See also

- phospholipids