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mesenchymal stem cell therapy

Monday 17 October 2011

MSCs are immunomodulatory, multipotent and fast proliferating and these unique capabilities mean they can be used for a wide range of treatments including immune-modulatory therapy, bone and cartilage regeneration, myocardium regeneration and the treatment of Hurler syndrome, a skeletal and neurological disorder.

MSCs therapy for the treatment of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) and Crohn’s disease has been developed by Osiris Therapeutics and the clinical trials are largely successful and pending completion of phase III.

Researchers have demonstrated the use of MSCs for the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI).

Horwitz et al. transplanted bone marrow (BM) cells from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings to patients suffering from OI. Results show that MSCs can develop into normal osteoblasts, leading to fast bone development and reduced fracture frequencies.

A more recent clinical trial showed that allogeneic fetal MSCs transplanted in utero in patients with severe OI can engraft and differentiate into bone in a human fetus.

The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia in the United States is currently recruiting study subjects for their phase I study to assess the safety and feasibility of repeated infusions of MSCs in children with OI.

Although not conclusively proven to be effective, application of autologous BM-derived MSCs into patients with osteoarthritis has been reported recently.

The usefulness of MSCs in cartilage regeneration has also been demonstrated with animal models and results look promising.

Medipost Co. Ltd is currently recruiting participants for a study on the efficiency and safety of using umbilical cord blood (UCB) derived MSCs for treatment of articular cartilage defect in old patients.[36]

Besides bone and cartilage regeneration, cardiomyocyte regeneration with autologous BM MSCs has also been reported recently.

Introduction of BM MSCs following myocardial infarction (MI) resulted in significant reduction of damaged regions and improvement in heart function.

Clinical trials for treatment of acute MI with Prochymal by Osiris Therapeutics are underway.

Also, a clinical trial revealed huge improvements in nerve conduction velocities in Hurler’s Syndrome patients infused with BM MSCs from HLA-identical siblings.