HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma
Monday 12 September 2011
Non HPV-related cervical squamous cell carcinoma
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is established as causative in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), being detected in 50% to 80% of tumors by DNA in situ hybridization (ISH) and/or polymerase chain reaction.
However, these tests do not assess viral transcription. Many consider E6/E7 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) the best indicator of HPV status.
RNA ISH is more sensitive than DNA ISH in detecting HPV in OSCC, and it correlates strongly with p16. Although both tests were comparable, p16 more strongly stratified patient outcomes. (#21836494#)
Partial p16 staining in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: extent and pattern correlate with human papillomavirus RNA status. (#22596101#)
- Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma has unique biology and better outcomes.
- p16 immunostaining is used as a surrogate marker for transcriptionally active HPV.
- Although diffuse staining is generally accepted as positive, the significance of partial staining has not been established, nor has the cutoff for extent of p16 staining that should be used to identify a tumor as HPV-related.
- Greater than 75% p16 staining or, alternatively, >50% staining combined with >25% confluent areas, are suitable cutoffs for defining positivity. (#22596101#)
Tumor cell anaplasia and multinucleation are predictors of disease recurrence in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, including among just the human papillomavirus-related cancers. Lewis JS Jr, Scantlebury JB, Luo J, Thorstad WL. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012 Jul;36(7):1036-46. PMID: #22743286#
Validation of Methods for Oropharyngeal Cancer HPV Status Determination in US Cooperative Group Trials. Jordan RC, Lingen MW, Perez-Ordonez B, He X, Pickard R, Koluder M, Jiang B, Wakely P, Xiao W, Gillison ML. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012 Jul;36(7):945-954. PMID: #22743284#
Partial p16 staining in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: extent and pattern correlate with human papillomavirus RNA status. Lewis JS Jr, Chernock RD, Ma XJ, Flanagan JJ, Luo Y, Gao G, Wang X, El-Mofty SK. Mod Pathol. 2012 May 18. PMID: #22596101#
High-Risk Human Papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA Detection by a Novel In Situ Hybridization Assay Strongly Correlates With p16 Expression and Patient Outcomes in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Ukpo OC, Flanagan JJ, Ma XJ, Luo Y, Thorstad WL, Lewis JS. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Sep;35(9):1343-50. PMID: #21836494#