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CD163

HGNC:1631 12p13 MIM.605545 Entrez:9332

Friday 8 January 2010

CD163 (Cluster of Differentiation 163) is a human protein encoded by the CD163 gene.

CD163 has been shown to interact with CSNK2B.

Synopsis

- Hemoglobin/haptoglobin scavenger receptor.
- Soluble form attenuates immune response.
- Positive staining (normal): monocytes/macrophages.
- Positive staining (disease): histiocytic sarcoma (Diagn Pathol 2007;2:7)

Pathology

- High CD163 expression is associated with rectal cancer.

- CD163 is a useful adjunct in distinguishing AFX from other malignant cutaneous spindle cell tumors and offers improved specificity in identifying cutaneous histiocytic/dendritic lesions.

- Hp protects hemoglobin (Hb) when oxidatively challenged with H(2)O(2) preserving CD163-mediated Hb clearance under oxidative stress conditions.

- During bacterial infection, CD163 on resident tissue macrophages acts as an innate immune sensor and inducer of local inflammation.

- Studied gene expression profile of brain lesions of a patient with Neuromyelitis optica by using DNA microarray; found marked up-regulation of interferon gamma-inducible protein 30 (IFI30), CD163, and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin)

- Casein kinase II activity is increased by the binding of haptoglobin 1-1-hemoglobin to CD163.

- Helpful for evaluation of a monocytic component in acute myeloid leukemias.

— Data show that CD64 indexes for neutrophils and monocytes, and CD163 index for neutrophils can all be used for discrimination of SIRS and sepsis in critically ill neonates and children.

- High-level expression of CD163 is associated with leiomyosarcomas

- DC-sign+ CD163+ macrophages expressing hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 are located within chorion villi of the placenta.

- CD163 and HCP-1 constitute a linked pathway for Hb catabolism and heme-iron recycling in human macrophages.

- Data show that in cardiac surgical patients the expression of scavenger molecule CD163 on monocytes is significantly higher in "on-pump" patients than that of "off-pump" patients.

- Activated macrophages are involved in ALF resulting in a 10-fold increase in sCD163. A high level (>26mg/l) of sCD163 was significantly correlated with fatal outcome and might be used with other parameters to determine prognosis.

- CD163-mediated Hb-Hp uptake by peripheral blood monocytes constitutes an Hb-Hp clearance pathway, which acts at the site of intravascular hemolysis to reduce Hb-Hp circulation time and toxicity.

- Results identify CD163 as a scavenger receptor for native Hb and small-molecular-weight Hb-based blood substitutes after Hp depletion.

- The increased free-hemoblobin, haptoglobin, and sCD163 in chronic renal failure suggested 8-isoprostane-mediated suppression of Hb catabolism through CD163 receptor shedding.

- Hemoglobin may mediate a stimulatory effect on erythropoiesis through the activation of CD163 on hematopoietic progenitor cells.

- Symptomatic plaques show a more pronounced induction of CD163 and HO-1 in response to plaque hemorrhages.

- Serum levels of soluble CD163 were highly increased in reactive hemophagocytic syndrome, suggesting a macrophage-specific marker.

- CD163 has at least two distinct functions: the clearance of hemoglobin in its cell-bound form and participation in anti-inflammation as a soluble factor, exhibiting cytokine-like functions.

- CD163 specifically reveals perivascular macrophages(PVM) in the normal human CNS. In MS lesions, CD163 staining reveals expression on foamy macrophages and microglia, besides an upregulation of the amount of PVM stained.

- CD163 mediates an anti-inflammatory pathway involving interleukin-10 release and heme oxygenase-1 synthesis.

- Haptoglobin-dependent HbSR/CD163 scavenging system for hemoglobin clearance prevents toxic effects of hemoglobin in plasma and kidney

- SRCR domain 3 of CD163 is an exposed domain and a critical determinant for the calcium-sensitive coupling of haptoglobin.hemoglobin complexes.

- In HIV encephalitis, expression of CD163 was far more widespread in grey matter ramified microglia than was expression of HLA-DR.

- Only the beta-chain of haptoglobin is involved in CD163 receptor recognition.;

- Individuals with diabetes mellitus and a haptoglobin 2.2 genotype demonstrate lower CD163 scavenger receptor levels and an impaired hemoglobin clearance capacity, with increased incidence of myocardial infarction.

- CD163 either acts as a TWEAK scavenger in pathological conditions or serves as an alternate receptor for TWEAK in cells lacking Fn14/TweakR.

- A metalloproteinase is responsible for LPS-mediated shedding of CD163.

CD163+ macrophages

- Increased numbers of CD163+ macrophages in SpA synovium and local production of sCD163 are associated with global inflammation as well as impairment of T cell activation, suggesting a dual role for CD163+ macrophages in Spondylarthropathy synovitis.

Soluble CD163 (sCD163)

- sCD163 may be a valuable laboratory parameter in monitoring diseases such as Gaucher.

- sCD163-NMMHCA complexes were present in activated T lymphocytes after incubation with shed sCD163.

- Soluble CD163 inhibits phorbol ester-induced lymphocyte proliferation.

- Results show that both serum levels of sCD163 and the presence of CD68(+) macrophage infiltration at the tumor invasive front are independent predictors of survival in AJCC stage I/II melanoma.

References

- CD163, a marker of perivascular macrophages, is up-regulated by microglia in simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis after haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex stimulation and is suggestive of breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Borda JT, Alvarez X, Mohan M, Hasegawa A, Bernardino A, Jean S, Aye P, Lackner AA. Am J Pathol. 2008 Mar;172(3):725-37. PMID: 18276779

- Diagnostic value of CD163 in cutaneous spindle cell lesions. Pouryazdanparast P, Yu L, Cutlan JE, Olsen SH, Fullen DR, Ma L. J Cutan Pathol. 2009 Aug;36(8):859-64. PMID: 19040468

- AM-3K, an anti-macrophage antibody, recognizes CD163, a molecule associated with an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. Komohara Y, Hirahara J, Horikawa T, Kawamura K, Kiyota E, Sakashita N, Araki N, Takeya M. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006 Jul;54(7):763-71. PMID: 16517975

- CD163 identifies perivascular macrophages in normal and viral encephalitic brains and potential precursors to perivascular macrophages in blood. Kim WK, Alvarez X, Fisher J, Bronfin B, Westmoreland S, McLaurin J, Williams K. Am J Pathol. 2006 Mar;168(3):822-34. PMID: 16507898

- CD163-positive perivascular macrophages in the human CNS express molecules for antigen recognition and presentation. Fabriek BO, Van Haastert ES, Galea I, Polfliet MM, Döpp ED, Van Den Heuvel MM, Van Den Berg TK, De Groot CJ, Van Der Valk P, Dijkstra CD. Glia. 2005 Sep;51(4):297-305. PMID: 15846794

- Fabriek, B. O., Polfliet, M. M. J., Vloet, R. P. M., van der Schors, R. C., Ligtenberg, A. J. M., Weaver, L. K., Geest, C., Matsuno, K., Moestrup, S. K., Dijkstra, C. D., van den Berg, T. K. The macrophage CD163 surface glycoprotein is an erythroblast adhesion receptor. Blood 109: 5223-5229, 2007. [PubMed: 17353345]

- Fabriek, B. O., van Bruggen, R., Deng, D. M., Ligtenberg, A. J. M., Nazmi, K., Schornagel, K., Vloet, R. P. M., Dijkstra, C. D., van den Berg, T. K. The macrophage scavenger receptor CD163 functions as an innate immune sensor for bacteria. Blood 113: 887-892, 2009. [PubMed: 1884948]

- Kristiansen, M., Graversen, J. H., Jacobsen, C., Sonne, O., Hoffman, H.-J., Law, S. K. A., Moestrup, S. K. Identification of the haemoglobin scavenger receptor. Nature 409: 198-201, 2001. [PubMed: "11196644#]

- Law, S. K. A., Micklem, K. J., Shaw, J. M., Zhang, X.-P., Dong, Y., Willis, A. C., Mason, D. Y. A new macrophage differentiation antigen which is a member of the scavenger receptor superfamily. Europ. J. Immun. 23: 2320-2325, 1993. [PubMed: 8370408]

- Ritter, M., Buechler, C., Langmann, T., Schmitz, G. Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of the human CD163 (M130) gene: a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 260: 466-474, 1999. [PubMed: 10403791]

- Stover, C. M., Schleypen, J., Gronlund, J., Speicher, M. R., Schwaeble, W. J., Holmskov, U. Assignment of CD163B, the gene encoding M160, a novel scavenger receptor, to human chromosome 12p13.3 by in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrid analysis. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 90: 246-247, 2000. [PubMed: 11124526]