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farnesyl pyrophosphate

Thursday 21 May 2009

Definition: Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) is an intermediate in the HMG-CoA reductase pathway used by organisms in the biosynthesis of terpenes and terpenoids (isoprenoids).

It is the immediate precursor of squalene (via the enzyme squalene synthase), dehydrodolichol diphosphate (a precursor of dolichol), and geranylgeranyl pyrophoshate (GGPP).

Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), also known as farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), is an intermediate in the HMG-CoA reductase pathway used by organisms in the biosynthesis of terpenes, terpenoids, and sterols.

Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) is the immediate precursor of squalene (via the enzyme squalene synthase), dehydrodolichol diphosphate (a precursor of dolichol), and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP).

Biosynthesis

Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (a prenyl transferase) catalyzes sequential condensation reactions of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate with 2 units of 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form farnesyl pyrophosphate.

Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate reacts with 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form geranyl pyrophosphate.

Geranyl pyrophosphate itself reacts with 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form farnesyl pyrophosphate.

These reactions are inhibited by bisphosphonates (used for osteoporosis).