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macrolide

Friday 27 March 2009

The macrolides are a group of drugs (typically antibiotics) whose activity stems from the presence of a macrolide ring, a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.

The lactone rings are usually 14, 15 or 16-membered. Macrolides belong to the polyketide class of natural products.

Members

- Common antibiotic macrolides

Azithromycin (Zithromax, Zitromax, Sumamed) - Unique, does not inhibit CYP3A4
Clarithromycin (Biaxin)
Dirithromycin (Dynabac)
Erythromycin
Roxithromycin (Rulid, Surlid,Roxid)
Telithromycin

- Developmental macrolides

Carbomycin A
Josamycin
Kitasamycin
Midecamicine/midecamicine acetate
Oleandomycin
Spiramycin
Troleandomycin
Tylosin/tylocine (Tylan)

- Ketolides

Ketolides are a new class of antibiotics that are structurally related to the macrolides. They are used to fight respiratory tract infections caused by macrolide-resistant bacteria.

Telithromycin (Ketek)
Cethromycin
Others include spiramycin (used for treating toxoplasmosis), ansamycin, oleandomycin, carbomycin and tylocine.

- Non-antibiotic macrolides

The drugs tacrolimus (Prograf) and sirolimus which are used as immunosuppressants, are also macrolide. They have similar activity to cyclosporin.

- Toxic macrolides

A variety of toxic macrolides produced by bacteria have been isolated and characterized, such as the mycolactones.