Home > F. Pathology by regions > Soft tissues > soft tissue tumors

soft tissue tumors

Tuesday 14 October 2003

WHO classification of soft tissue tumors (2002)

1. adipocytic tumors (fatty tumors)

2. fibroblastic tumors/myofibroblastic tumors

3. so-called fibrohistiocytic tumors

4. smooth muscle tumors

4A. benign smooth muscle tumors

- leiomyoma (cutaneous, deep, pleomorphic)
- angiomyoma (vascular leiomyoma)
- epithelioid leiomyoma
- intravenous leiomyomatosis
- leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata

4B. malignant smooth muscle tumors

- leiomyosarcoma

  • epithelioid leiomyosarcoma

5. pericytic tumors (perivascular tumors)

- glomus tumor
- glomangiomyoma
- hemangiopericytoma
- malignant glomus tumor
- malignant hemangiopericytoma

6. skeletal muscle tumors

- rhabdomyoma
- rhabdomyosarcomas

  • embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma
  • alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

6A. benign skeletal muscle tumors

- adult rhabdomyoma
- genital rhabdomyoma
- fetal rhabdomyoma
- intermediate rhabdomyoma or cellular rhabdomyoma

6B. malignant skeletal muscle tumors (rhabdomyosarcomas)

- embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma
- alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma
- morphological variants

  • botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma
  • spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma
  • pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma
  • rhabdomyosarcoma with ganglionic differentiation (ectomesenchymoma)

6. vascular tumors (tumors of blood and lymph vessels)

6A. Benign vascular tumors
- papillary endothelial hyperplasia
- hemangiomas

  • capillary hemangioma
  • juvenile hemangioma
  • cavernous hemangioma
  • venous hemangioma

- epithelioid hemangioma (angiolymphoid hyperplasia, histiocytoid hemangioma)
- granulation-type hemangioma (pyogenic granuloma)
- tufted hemangioma
- deep hemangiomas

  • intramuscular hemangioma
  • synovial hemangioma
  • perineural hemangioma

- lymphangioma
- lymphangiomyoma
- lymphangiomyomatosis
- angiomatosis
- lymphangiomatosis
- hemangioendothelioma

  • epithelioid hemangioendothelioma
  • endovascular papillary angioendothelioma (Dabska tumor)
  • spindle cell hemangioendothelioma

6B. maligant vascular tumors
- angiosarcoma
- lymphangiosarcoma
- Kaposi sarcoma

7. synovial tumors

- tenosynovial giant cell tumor

  • localized tenosynovial giant cell tumor
  • diffuse tenosynovial giant cell tumor (extraarticular pigmented villonodular synovitis, florid tenosynovitis)

- synovial sarcoma
- malignant giant cell tumor of tendon sheath

8. mesothelial tumors

- solitary fibrous tumor of pleura and peritoneum (localized fibrous mesothelioma)
- multicystic mesothelioma
- adenomatoid tumor
- well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma
- malignant solitary fibrous tumor of pleura and peritoneum
- diffuse mesothelioma

9. neural tumors and neuroectodermal tumors

- traumatic neuroma
- Morton neuroma
- multiple mucosal neuromas
- neuromuscular hamartoma (benign Triton tumor)
- nerve sheath ganglion
- schwannoma (neurilemoma)
- schwannomatosis
- neurothekeoma (nerve sheath myxoma)
- neurofibroma
- granular cell tumor
- melanocytic schwannoma
- ectopic meningioma
- ectopic ependymoma
- ganglioneuroma
- pigmented neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (retinal anlage tumor, melanotic progonoma)
- malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) (malignant schwannoma, neurofibrosarcoma)
- malignant granular cell tumor
- clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of soft parts)
- malignant melanocytic schwannoma
- gastrointestinal autonomous nerve tumor (GANT or plexosarcoma)
- peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET)
- neuroblastoma
- ganglioneuroblastoma
- peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (neuroepithelioma)
- extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma

10. paragangliomas (paraganglionic tumors)

- paraganglioma (extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma)
- malignant paraganglioma

11. Extraskeletal cartilaginous and osseous tumors

11A. Benign tumors
- Panniculitis ossificans and myositis ossificans
- Fibroosseous pseudotumor of the digits
- Fibrodysplasia (myositis) ossificans progressiva
- Extraskeletal chondroma or osteochondroma
- Extraskeletal osteoma

11B. Malignant tumors
- Extraskeletal chondrosarcoma
- Well-differentiated chondrosarcoma
- Myxoid chondrosarcoma
- Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma
- Extraskeletal osteosarcoma

13. Pluripotential mesenchymal tumors

- mesenchymoma
- malignant mesenchymoma

14. Miscellaneous tumors

14A. Benign tumors

- Congenital granular cell tumor
- Tumoral calcinosis
- Myxoma

  • Cutaneous myxoma
  • Intramuscular myxoma
  • Juxta-articular myxoma

- Angiomyxoma
- Amyloid tumor
- Parachordoma
- Ossifying and nonossifying fibromyxoid tumors
- Palisaded myofibroblastoma of lymph node

14B. Malignant tumors

- Alveolar soft part sarcoma
- Epithelioid sarcoma
- Malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor
- Desmoplastic small cell tumor

15. Unclassified tumors

Phenotypes

- soft tissue myxoid tumors

Links

- Basic Musculoskeletal Histology & Cell Identification by Dhruv Kumar, MD, at WCI, DC

- Round Cell and Soft Tissue Tumors
Clinical: Daria Brooks, MD; Radiology: James Jelinek, MD - Pathology: Norio Azumi, MD
by Daria Brooks, MD; James Jelinek, MD; Norio Azumi, MD at WCI, DC

- Molecular characterisation of Soft Tissue Tumors: a gene expresion study. Stanford University, CA

See also

- soft tissue sarcomas
- soft tissue pseudosarcomas

- Tumors

  • Sarcomas
    • soft tissue sarcomas

Reviews

- Immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of soft tissue tumours. Fisher C. Histopathology. 2011 Jun;58(7):1001-12. PMID: #21143519#

- Clark MA, Fisher C, Judson I, Thomas JM. Soft-tissue sarcomas in adults. N Engl J Med. 2005 Aug 18;353(7):701-11. PMID: #16107623#