Receptor status was traditionally considered by reviewing each individual receptor (ER, PR, HER2) in turn, but newer approaches look at these together, along with the tumor grade, to categorize breast cancer into several conceptual molecular classes that have different prognoses and may have different responses to specific therapies.
DNA microarrays have assisted this approach, as discussed in the following section. Proposed molecular subtypes include:
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Ovary in the Juan Rosai collection of digital slides
I. SURFACE EPITHELIAL TUMORS - EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CANCERS
Borderline Serous Cystadenoma http://rosaicollection.org/casedetails.cfm?c=734
Borderline Serous Cystadenoma http://rosaicollection.org/casedetails.cfm?c=265
Papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma (vs endometrioid carcinoma) http://rosaicollection.org/casedetails.cfm?c=14643
Papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma (...)
Uterus in the Juan Rosai collection of digital slides
Endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma (with small secretory component) http://rosaicollection.org/casedetails.cfm?c=14861 - Dedifferentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma http://rosaicollection.org/casedetails.cfm?c=14423
Endometrial adenocarcinoma http://rosaicollection.org/casedetails.cfm?c=18110
Clear cell adenocarcinoma
Adenocarcinoma with clear cell features c/w mullerian origin (Peritoneum) (...)
disseminated histoplasmosis (#19745612#)
idiopathic granulomatous epididymo-orchitis (#2022213#)
Schistosoma haematobium infection (#4471717#)
Tuberculous orchitis US and MRI findings. Correlation with histopathological findings.
Michaelides M, Sotiriadis C, Konstantinou D, Pervana S, Tsitouridis I. Hippokratia. 2010 (...)
Ovarian mucinous tumors have been the least studied histologic types probably due to their relative rarity (approximately 3% of EOC).
KRAS mutations occur in up to 75% of primary mucinous carcinomas and using KRAS as a molecular marker, laser capture microdissection studies have shown the identical KRAS mutation in mucinous carcinomas and adjacent mucinous cystadenomas and borderline tumors supporting the morphological continuum and tumor progression in ovarian mucinous (...)
After serous carcinoma, endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas are the most frequent types of EOC accounting for approximately 15-20% of EOC in Western countries.
PI3K/PTEN signaling pathway
Based on genome-wide mutational analysis, the most common molecular genetic changes in clear cell carcinoma are a somatic inactivating mutation of ARID1A, a tumor suppressor gene detected in about 50% of cases, an activating mutation of PIK3CA in about 50% of tumors and deletion of PTEN, a tumor (...)
epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) serous borderline tumor (SBT) atypical proliferative serous tumor (APST) micropapillary serous carcinoma (MPSC) or “non-invasive low-grade serous carcinoma” low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC)
The relationship of APST and MPSC to LGSC based on morphologic studies was supported by mutational analysis, gene expression studies and methylation profiling demonstrating that these three tumor types shared molecular alterations that (...)
epithelial ovarian cancer
Each of the major histologic types of EOC is associated with a different set of cell signaling pathways abnormalities, which for the type I tumors are shared with their respective precursor lesions (borderline tumors and endometriosis) supporting their stepwise progression.
In contrast, the type II tumors, aside from a very high frequency of TP53 mutations and molecular alterations of BRCA1/2, are characterized by marked genetic instability and lack other (...)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, approximately 20-nucleotide-long, non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules regulating the expression of target genes by imperfect (in animals) binding to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) and possibly 5′-UTR of mRNA.
To become the mature form, miRNAs are processed by enzymatic complexes Dorsha and Dicer, and they repress translation or lead to the degradation of the mRNA of their target genes.
Currently approximately 2000 human miRNA sequences have (...)
Malignant mixed müllerian tumours (MMMT)
Malignant mixed müllerian tumours (MMMT), also referred to as uterine carcinosarcomas or sarcomatoid carcinomas, are rare uterine tumours accounting for less than 5% of EC.
Molecular studies have suggested recently that MMMT should be regarded as metaplastic carcinomas.
Like sarcomatoid carcinomas of other locations, carcinosarcomas probably result from endometrial carcinomas through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
EMT is a process of (...)
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