H3.3 replacement facilitates epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. Wen D, Banaszynski LA, Rosenwaks Z, Allis CD, Rafii S. Nucleus. 2014 Aug 25;5(5). PMID: #25153334# [Free]
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Most recent articles
Definition: DNA annotation or genome annotation is the process of identifying the locations of genes and all of the coding regions in a genome and determining what those genes do.
An annotation (irrespective of the context) is a note added by way of explanation or commentary. Once a genome is sequenced, it needs to be annotated to make sense of it.
DNA variant annotation
Annotations in pathology
CDC tracking enterovirus D-68 outbreak causing severe respiratory illness in children in the Midwest. Stephenson J. JAMA. 2014 Oct 1;312(13):1290. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.13256. PMID: #25268426#
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is characterized by significant genomic instability that could lead to clonal diversity.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) comprise a wide spectrum of neoplasms with different tumor biologies, prognosis and response to therapies.
Current tumor classification and traditional diagnostic methods (e.g. clinical assessment, histopathology) are limited in their capacity to determine prognosis and clinical decision-making. Despite (...)
Human papillomavirus-associated oral intraepithelial neoplasia
’HPV-associated Oral Intraepithelial Neoplasia’ is used to characterize the lesions of the oral cavity for consistency in nomenclature with HPV-associated lesions of the lower anogenital tract.
Human papillomavirus-associated oral intraepithelial neoplasia. Woo SB, Cashman EC, Lerman MA. Mod Pathol. 2013 Oct;26(10):1288-97. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.70 . PMID: #23599160# (...)
IgG4-related disease to lacrimal gland lesions
Applying the consensus statement on the pathology of IgG4-related disease to lacrimal gland lesions. Andrew N, Kearney D, Selva D. Mod Pathol. 2013 Aug;26(8):1150-1. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.46 . PMID: #23903493# [Free]
BRAFV600E in CRC; BRAFV600E in colorectal cancer
Excluding Lynch syndrome
In colorectal carcinoma, the presence of the BRAFV600E mutation can be used to virtually exclude Lynch syndrome in mismatch repair-deficient tumors.
Immunohistochemistry Facilitates Universal Screening of Colorectal Cancers for Lynch Syndrome. (#23797718#)
BRAFV600E mutation in microsatellite-unstable (MSI) colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) virtually excludes Lynch syndrome (LS).
Prognostic biomarker (...)
Mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry is a widely used method for detecting patients at risk for Lynch syndrome.
Recent data suggest that a two-antibody panel approach using PMS2 and MSH6 is an effective screening protocol for colorectal carcinoma, but there are limited data concerning this approach for extraintestinal tumors.
Concurrent loss of MLH1 and PMS2 is the most common pattern of abnormal expression (12%) followed by concurrent loss of MSH2 and MSH6 (...)
TNM Staging System
T stages of salivary gland cancer
T1 means the tumour is all inside the tissue of the salivary gland and is smaller than 2cm across (about ¾ inch across)
T2 – the tumour is larger than 2cm, but smaller than 4cm across (about 1 ½ inches)
T3 – the tumour is bigger than 4cm and/or it has spread into the soft tissues around the salivary gland
T4a – the tumour has grown outside the salivary gland into nearby body tissues such as the jaw, ear canal, facial nerves or skin (...)