Morphologic investigation together with fluorescence immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a common procedure for the identification and enumeration of CTCs after enrichment.
The CellSearch ® system classifies a CTC as positive event if the cell is ≥ 4 μm, DAPI+ (4,6-diamino-2-phenylindole), pan-keratin+, and CD45−.
The additional 4th fluorescence channel is accessible for a user-defined detection of, for example, therapy-relevant markers such as the androgen receptor (AR), (...)
humpath.com supports the 2015 edition of the European Symposium of Biopathology, June 2015 in Paris, France.
Most recent articles
CTCs are infrequent and appear at an estimated level of one against the background of millions (106–107) of surrounding normal peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) (Alix-Panabieres et al, 2012). The occurrence rate might even be lower in cancer patients without obvious metastases (Rink et al, 2012; Rack et al, 2014).
Hence, selective enrichment of tumor cells and/or systematic removal of PBMCs and red blood cells (RBCs) is required to detect CTCs in the blood of a cancer patient.
Another form of non-EMT-associated dissemination, which is thought to substantially contribute to metastasis, is the release of "circulating tumor cell clusters" (Aceto et al, 2014).
These clusters are constituted of 2–50 tumor cells held together by plakoglobin-dependent intercellular adhesion.
Clustered cells are less likely to undergo anoikis and have an increased likelihood of being trapped in narrow blood vessels, thus favoring extravasation into distant (...)
Centrosome amplification has been linked to de-differentiation and recently been shown to induce invasion in cancer (Ghadimi et al, 2000; Lingle et al, 2002; Godinho et al, 2014).
The centrosomes form the main microtubule organizing center in mammalian cells and facilitate chromosomal separation during mitosis via the meiotic spindle apparatus but also participate in the organization of flagella and cilia.
EMT is thought not to play a role in the invasion of tumors with centrosome (...)
Loss of 4q21.23-22.1 is a prognostic marker for disease free and overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer. (#25501003#)
Loss of 4q21.23-22.1 is a prognostic marker for disease free and overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer. Uzunoglu FG, Dethlefsen E, Hanssen A, Wrage M, Deutsch L, Harms-Effenberger K, Vashist YK, Reeh M, Sauter G, Simon R, Bockhorn M, Pantel K, Izbicki JR, Wikman H. PLoS One. 2014 Dec 11;9(12):e113315. (...)
Metastasis, not the primary tumor, is responsible for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths. Emerging evidence indicates that breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) cooperate to produce circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that are highly competent for metastasis.
CTCs with both CSC and EMT characteristics have recently been identified in the bloodstream of patients with metastatic disease.
Breast CSCs have elevated tumorigenicity required for (...)
A new 3-tier pattern-based system to classify endocervical adenocarcinoma was recently presented.
Pattern A tumors were characterized by well-demarcated glands frequently forming clusters or groups with relative lobular architecture.
Pattern B tumors demonstrated localized destructive invasion defined as desmoplastic stroma surrounding glands with irregular and/or ill-defined borders or incomplete glands and associated tumor cells (individual or small clusters) (...)
SDHA-associated renal cell carcinoma
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an emerging provisional entity included in the 2013 International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification.
Most genomic alterations in patients with SDH-deficient RCCs involve the SDHB subunit, and the associated renal tumors have loss of immunohistochemical SDHB expression and distinctive morphologic features.
Renal tumors less commonly possess genomic alterations (...)
renal simple cysts
renal atypical cysts