Perineural Invasion Is an Independent Pathologic Indicator of Recurrence in Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Holthoff ER, Jeffus SK, Gehlot A, Stone R, Erickson SW, Kelly T, Quick CM, Post SR. Am J Surg Pathol. 2015 Mar 16. PMID: #25786085#
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Another strategy for the identification of CTCs is to enumerate and analyze proteins specifically secreted by viable tumor cells (EPISPOT, EPithelial Immuno SPOT). CTCs are enriched by negative depletion and subsequently cultured on a membrane coated with antibodies that capture the secreted proteins. Afterward, the proteins are readily identifiable by immunofluorescence microscopy using fluorochrome-labeled secondary antibodies targeting the protein of interest.
cancer xenografts; tumor xenograft
Integrated next-generation sequencing and avatar mouse models for personalized cancer treatment. Garralda E, Paz K, López-Casas PP, Jones S, Katz A, Kann LM, López-Rios F, Sarno F, Al-Shahrour F, Vasquez D, Bruckheimer E, Angiuoli SV, Calles A, Diaz LA, Velculescu VE, Valencia A, Sidransky D, Hidalgo M. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 May 1;20(9):2476-84. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-3047 . PMID: (...)
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1-positive cancer stem cells mediate metastasis and poor clinical outcome in inflammatory breast cancer. (#20028757#)
Charafe-Jauffret E, Ginestier C, Iovino F, Tarpin C, Diebel M, ESterni B, Houvenaeghel G, Extra J-M, Bertucci F, Jacquemier J, Xerri L, Dontu G, Stassi G, Xiao Y, Barsky SH, Birnbaum D, Viens P, Wicha MS. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1-positive cancer stem cells mediate metastasis and poor clinical outcome in inflammatory breast (...)
Co-expression of putative stemness and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers on single circulating tumour cells from patients with early and metastatic breast cancer. Papadaki MA, Kallergi G, Zafeiriou Z, Manouras L, Theodoropoulos PA, Mavroudis D, Georgoulias V, Agelaki S. BMC Cancer. 2014 Sep 3;14:651. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-651. PMID: #25182808# (...)
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent the primary cause of intractable metastatic disease and are considered essential for metastasis formation. However, characterization of CTCs that induce metastasis remains elusive because platforms that capture CTCs are not comprehensive, owing to the phenotypic heterogeneity of CTCs.
For example, the Veridex CellSearch platform—the only test approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)—relies on the use of antibodies targeting the (...)
Brain metastatic breast cancer (BMBC) is uniformly fatal and increasing in frequency.
The overwhelming majority of cancer deaths are due to metastasis. Brain metastatic breast cancer (BMBC) occurs in approximately 20% of all breast cancer cases, is uniformly fatal, and may be increasing in frequency in patients with a particular subtype. Occult brain metastasis are exceedingly common at autopsy.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent the primary cause of intractable (...)
Mild ductal hyperplasia is three or four cell layers thick.
The nuclei are normochromatic, oval, with inconspicuous nucleoli and no mitotic activity.
Papillary hyperplasia is part of the spectrum of mild and moderate ductal hyperplasia. The papillae are blunt or delicate and irregularly shaped. Intraluminal proliferation may create a solid ball of epithelium attached to one side of the duct and surrounded by a cleft-like space - creating an appearance reminiscent (...)
Shear stress in fluids
Any real fluids (liquids and gases included) moving along solid boundary will incur a shear stress on that boundary. The no-slip condition dictates that the speed of the fluid at the boundary (relative to the boundary) is zero, but at some height from the boundary the flow speed must equal that of the fluid. The region between these two points is aptly named the boundary layer.
For all Newtonian fluids in laminar flow, the shear stress is proportional to the (...)
Frisch and Francis, Journal of Cell Biology, 1994. WP
Anoikis is a form of programmed cell death (apoptosis) that is induced by anchorage-dependent cells detaching from the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM).
Usually cells stay close to the tissue to which they belong since the communication between proximal cells as well as between cells and ECM provide essential signals for growth or survival.
When cells are detached from the ECM, there is a loss of normal cell–matrix (...)