epithelial ovarian cancer
Each of the major histologic types of EOC is associated with a different set of cell signaling pathways abnormalities, which for the type I tumors are shared with their respective precursor lesions (borderline tumors and endometriosis) supporting their stepwise progression.
In contrast, the type II tumors, aside from a very high frequency of TP53 mutations and molecular alterations of BRCA1/2, are characterized by marked genetic instability and lack other (...)
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epithelial ovarian cancer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, approximately 20-nucleotide-long, non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules regulating the expression of target genes by imperfect (in animals) binding to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) and possibly 5′-UTR of mRNA.
To become the mature form, miRNAs are processed by enzymatic complexes Dorsha and Dicer, and they repress translation or lead to the degradation of the mRNA of their target genes.
Currently approximately 2000 human miRNA sequences have (...)
Malignant mixed müllerian tumours (MMMT)
Malignant mixed müllerian tumours (MMMT), also referred to as uterine carcinosarcomas or sarcomatoid carcinomas, are rare uterine tumours accounting for less than 5% of EC.
Molecular studies have suggested recently that MMMT should be regarded as metaplastic carcinomas.
Like sarcomatoid carcinomas of other locations, carcinosarcomas probably result from endometrial carcinomas through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
EMT is a process of (...)
non-endometrioid carcinomas (NEEC)
NEEC show TP53 mutations (90%), markedly reduced expression of E-cadherin (80–90%), c-erb-B2 (HER-2) amplification (30%), alterations in genes involved in regulation of the mitotic spindle checkpoint (STK15) and loss of heterozygosity at multiple loci reflecting chromosomal instability.
While TP53 mutations occur in 90% of NEEC, they are present in only 10–20% of EEC, mainly grade 3 tumours.
Reduced expression of E-cadherin is frequent in EC, and may be (...)
The PI3K–AKT pathway is one of the most frequently abnormal signalling pathways in EEC, often resulting from mutations in the tumour suppressor gene PTEN and activating mutations in PIK3CA.
The importance of the PI3K–PTEN–AKT survival pathway in EC raises the possibility that PI3K inhibitors may be used as potential anticancer agents. In fact, a decrease of AKT phosphorylation and increased apoptosis are seen in mutated PTEN human endometrial cancer cells in the presence (...)
The oxyntic mucosa show marked hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the parietal cells. Some of these cells can be vacuolated, and many can display protrusions of apical cytoplasm into dilated oxyntic glands filled with inspissated eosinophilic material.
chronic omeprazole therapy (#8888719#)
long-term antiacids administration
Association achlorhydria, parietal cell hyperplasia, and multiple gastric carcinoids (#15958864#)
atrophic mucosa of autoimmune (...)
The future of skin metagenomics. Mathieu A, Vogel TM, Simonet P. Res Microbiol. 2014 Feb-Mar;165(2):69-76. doi:10.1016/j.resmic.2013.12.002 . #PMID: 24361423#
The furanocoumarins, or furocoumarins, are a class of organic chemical compounds produced by a variety of plants. They are biosynthesized partly through the phenylpropanoid pathway and the mevalonate pathway, which is biosynthesized by a coupling of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and 7-hydroxycoumarin (umbelliferone).
Bergamot is also a source of bergamottin which, along with the chemically related compound 6’,7’-dihydroxybergamottin, is believed to be responsible for the grapefruit juice effect in which the consumption of the juice affects the metabolism of a variety of pharmaceutical drugs.
In the past, psoralen extracted from bergamot oil has been used in tanning accelerators and sunscreens. These substances were known to be photocarcinogenic since 1959, but they were only banned from (...)
Psoralen (also called psoralene) is the parent compound in a family of natural products known as furocoumarins. It is structurally related to coumarin by the addition of a fused furan ring, and may be considered as a derivative of umbelliferone.
Psoralen occurs naturally in the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia, as well as in the common fig, celery, parsley and West Indian satinwood.
It is widely used in PUVA (= psoralen + UVA) treatment for psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and cutaneous (...)